5. Ferramentas e métodos para conservação e o manejo – Temas
Selene S. da C. Nogueira Melissa G. Silva, Carlos T. dos S. Dias, Sergio Nogueira- Filho
THE SOCIAL RESPONSE OF COLLARED PECCARY (PECARI TAJACU) UNDER THREE SPACE ALLOWANCES
The quality of animal welfare of livestock has gotten an increase research attention last years. Few studies, however, have reported the behavioral response of wild animals under domestication. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of social behavior patterns on farmed collared peccary. We observed three herds of collared peccaries with eight acquainted individuals each. Using a 3 X 3 Latin square design herds were allocated, in a random order, into one of the three experimental enclosures with different sizes: 1,500, 750 and 375 m2 of total available area, all of them with three wooden shelters. We recorded the all occurrences of selected friendly and agonistic behavioral patterns that occurred 90 minutes before and during feeding periods. We observed that the feeding period is a critical factor in peccary’s farming process as observed in livestock. Under the three enclosure areas, the average occurrence of agonistic acts increased five times during feeding compared to pre-feeding periods, while the occurrence of friendly acts decreased by half. Additionally, the peccaries used the shelters to hide independently the enclosure size. We recorded the animals inside the shelters most of the time hiding. Despite our results did not show significance relationship between spaces allowed and shelter usage we registered a tendency to increase the usage along with the decrease on enclosure size. These data allow us to conclude that the shelter usage is related to social avoidance and also is a valuable environmental enrichment to captive peccary. Based on our results, we concluded that the space allowance tested did not interfere in the peccary’s behavior expression but further studies must be done to compare semi-confinement and confinement production systems. Additionally, the shelter usage is related to social avoidance and must to be considered as an environmental enrichment to captive collared peccary. Further studies must be done to determine best proportions of peccaries per feeder, feeder distribution and feeder design to avoid behavioral conflicts and feed intake, consequently affecting their welfare under captivity.