5. Ferramentas e métodos para conservação e o manejo – Temas
Benoit de Thoisy, Manuel Ruiz-Garcia,Andres Tapuy, Oswaldo Ramirez, Mathias ToblerPHYLOGEOGRAPHY OF THE LOWLAND TAPIR (TAPIRUS TERRESTRIS)
The phylogeography and the genetic structure of the Lowland tapir Tapirus terrestris was investigated using full sequences (1135 bp mtDNA) of the cytochrome b gene from 49 individuals from Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, north Brazil and French Guiana. An overall high gene diversity was found, ranging from 0.64 to 0.96, and 31 halotypes were recorded. Highest diversity levels were recorded in populations of North- West Amazonia: nucleotide diversity ranges from 0.14 to 0.15 in Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, vs. 0.05 to 0.09 in Bolivia and French Guiana. No temporal or spatial expansion was detected in any population. Despite geographic and genetic distances, significant number of migrants were recorded among populations: e.g., Nm=2.6 between Peru and Colombia, Nm=2.4 between Bolivia and Colombia. These continuous flows have direct implication for conservation, highlighting the importance of suitable and continuous forest habitats at a transnational scale. Considering the full set of sequences without a priori assigment of animals to their sampling location, Bayesian analysis reveals only a limited number of well supported clades, moreover fewly explained by geographic origin of animals. After a divergence with the Indian tapir Tapirus indicus estimated 16-25 MYA, the diversification process of Tapirus terrestris populations is recent, and started 1.3 to 2.5 MYA. Together with this result, a high vagility could explain both the high genetic diversity and the lack of geographical structure, suggesting that geographic barriers had only a limited impact on structuration of Lowland tapir populations.