14. Medicina da conservação – Temas
Benoit De Thoisy, Vincent Lacoste, Marguerite Delaval, Jean-francois Mauffrey, François Catzeflis, Philippe Dussart, Jacques Morvan, Xavier Deparis, Anne Lavergne Abstract:
In South America, dengue is the most important arthropod-born viral disease. Unlike most of the other arboviroses, wild mammals have no confirmed role in the cycle of dengue. In French Guiana, dengue is endemic with outbreaks of epidemic events, and the potential role of wild species as reservoir has been suggested to explain such events. Rodents, marsupials and bats were captured at several periods between 2001 and 2006 in a periurban secondary forest; dengue infection was investigated by serology and detection of viral RNA from organs (liver, spleen) and blood samples by RT-PCR.Dengue virus infection was reported in our sampling with a prevalence varying according to the epidemiologic situation in human population. This is the first demonstration of dengue infection of wild mammals in South America. Considering the probable absence of a strictly sylvatic circulation of the virus, the presence of the virus in wild animals can be related to infection by strains circulating in humans and accidentally introduce in the forest fauna. Nevertheless, are wild animals able to maintain the virus between outbreaks? Can they contribute to virus amplification, in relation to their high population dynamics? Furthermore, as anatomopathologic analyses and biochemical investigations suggested that infection might be lethal for some species, infection may play a role in the regulation of mammals density. Actually, dengue virus infection can lead to complex interactions between fluctuating densities of hosts and vectors and emergence of the disease at the edge of forest habitats. The role of infectious diseases on wild animal populations are subjected to numerous and frequently undemonstrated assumptions. Together with questions in regard to the epidemiology of this viral disease in humans, this case study on the relationship between dengue virus circulation and periurban mammals provide one of the first opportunity to investigate the impact of dengue virus on the regulation of wild mammal populations.